Research on PSI for College Golf

James (Trey) Leech recently successfully defended his doctoral dissertation at Florida State University. The title of his dissertation is "Effects of Pacing Contingencies in a PSI-Taught College-Level Golf Course." (Note: PSI is the acronym for Personalized Systems for Instruction.)

Using a quasi-experimental mixed-method design, the purpose of this study was to investigate the use of flexible-pacing vs. self-pacing by incorporating classroom-based pacing contingencies such as instructor-recommended deadlines and student-set deadlines on students’ pacing rate, course completion rate, withdrawal rate, student achievement measures (golf-skills & golf-knowledge), and attitudes. Three pacing condition groups were used: self-pacing only; instructor-recommended deadlines; and student-set deadlines. Within each of these pacing condition groups, a sub-group based on golf-skill ability level was created from golf-skill pretest results.

The quantitative results from this study indicated that flexible-pacing is advantageous for increasing lower- and moderate-skilled pacing rates as well as increasing students’ overall perception of the PSI-taught golf course. The qualitative results indicated several key differences between students who were able to complete all course workbook tasks versus students who were unable to complete all course workbook tasks.

These results support the use of flexible-pacing over self-pacing in PSI-taught courses in college-level physical education settings due to significant improvements on several key measurements especially for lower- and moderate-skilled students.

Dr. Leech is an Associate Professor in the Department of Health, Physical Education and Leisure Studies at the University of Northern Iowa.  If you would like to know more about his dissertation, and how to use PSI for college golf courses, you may email him at This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

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