Direct Instruction is characterized by teacher-controlled decisions and teacher-directed engagement patterns for learners. Teachers will have a distinct set of learning goals in mind; present students with a model of the desired movement, skill, or concept; and then organize student learning activities into segmented blocks of time, providing high rates of augmented feedback and encouragement as learners practice each task or skill.
Personalized System for Instruction (PSI) allows students to progress through a sequence of tasks in a learning module at their own pace. Each module includes information on task presentation, task structure, error analyses, and performance criteria, and this is given through prepared materials such as written instructions or video samples. Teachers spend the time giving one-on-one instructions and feedback. The model is based on a unified plan, meaning that there are no daily lesson plans; instead, students pick up where they left off in the module.
Cooperative Learning is a set of teaching strategies centered on student learning teams. Teams stay together for an entire unit where they work to achieve a common goal. All members are expected to contribute to the learning process and the outcomes. The strategies grouped under the model must have these three components: team rewards, individual accountability, and equal opportunities for success. The teacher’s job is to specify the instructional objectives, make pre-instructional decisions, communicate the task structure, set the assignment in motion, monitor it, and then evaluate the learning and interaction.
Based on sports leagues, the Sport Education model has students becoming an integral part of a league, taking on decision-making roles. Students are not just players but also share in planning, administration, leadership, and refereeing. It is hoped that by creating a positive sports team experience, students will continue to participate in sports beyond what is required by school.
Peer Teaching takes the idea of students-teaching-students and applies it to a structured learning environment. While teachers still make and implement most of the content, students take on the responsibility to instruct during and after the learning trials. Students, called tutors when in the instructional role, are trained to observe and analyze other students’ practice attempts. Students spend equal time as tutors and as learners. This increases effectiveness of the teaching time and allows the teacher to cover more content in a unit.
Question-based learning is at the center of Inquiry Teaching. Students learn in the cognitive domain, meaning that students are asked questions and must think for themselves, often expressing the answer in some type of movement. Teachers plan units that are built around questioning strategies.
The Tactical Games model uses student interest in the game structure to promote skill development and tactical knowledge needed for competent game performance. In this model, the teacher plans a sequence of learning tasks that have a game-like structure to develop students’ skills and tactics, leading to modified or full versions of the game. These game-like tasks and modified games are called game forms. The model emphasizes the development of tactical knowledge that facilitates skill applications in smaller versions of the game, so that students can apply that learning in the full version when the time comes. In a sense, students are always “playing the game,” as they work on essential skills and tactics in a developmentally appropriate sequence.
Teaching Personal and Social Responsibility (TPSR) is based on the idea that the content taught in PE programs allows students to learn and practice taking responsibility for themselves. It recognizes that responsibility and physical activity should be pursued at the same time. TPSR functions within the regular content of the PE program and is at work when personal and social development are the main learning goals.