Key Concepts

Chapter 1

hunch hypothesis physiology
physiology of exercise principle professional
theory    

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Chapter 2

A band acetylcholine (ACH) actin
action potential adenosine diphosphate (ADP) adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
cardiac muscle cross-bridge recycling end bulb
endomysium epimysium fascia
fasciculus fast-twitch glycolytic (FG) fast-twitch oxidative glycolytic (FOG)
H zone I band mitochondria
motor neuron motor unit myofibril
myofilament myoneural junction myosin
myosin ATPase myosin cross-bridge neuromuscular junction
perimysium sarcolemma sarcomere
sarcoplasm sarcoplasmic reticulum skeletal muscle
sliding filament model slow-twitch oxidative (SO) smooth muscle
synapse syncytium transverse tubules
tropomyosin troponin Z-line

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Chapter 3

adenosine triphosphate–phosphocreatine (ATP–PC) system aerobic
allosteric inhibition anabolism
anaerobic glycolysis beta oxidation
carbohydrate sparing effect catabolism
coenzyme cofactor
dehydrogenase enzymes electron transport system (ETS)
energy metabolism enzyme
glycogen glycogenolysis
glycolysis Krebs cycle
lactate Law of Mass Action
lock-and-key method metabolism
myoglobin phosphagen
phosphatase phosphocreatine (PC)
phosphofructokinase (PFK) polypeptide
power reactant
substrate triglyceride

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Chapter 4

afferent neuron alpha motor neuron autonomic nervous system
axon basal ganglia Betz cells
central nervous system crossed extensor reflex dendrite 
efferent neuron electromyography  electronic integrators
endolymph extrafusal muscle fibers (EF) extrapyramidal system
flexion reflex frequency domain gamma motor neuron
Golgi tendon organs integration  internuncial neuron 
intrafusal muscle fibers (IF) kinesthesis  lower motor neuron 
motor cortex motor neuron muscle action potential (MAP)
muscle spindle myotatic reflex neuron
parasympathetic branch peripheral nervous system planimetry
power density spectrum (pds) premotor cortex proprioception
pyramidal system pyramidal tracts qualitative electromyography
quantitative electromyography reciprocal inhibition reflex
righting reflex sensory neuron somatic nervous system
spinal reflex sympathetic branch time domain
upper motor neuron vestibular receptor  

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Chapter 5

arteriole arteriovenous anastomose (AV shunt) artery
atrioventricular (AV) node atrium autorhythmicity
blood flow blood pressure  capacitance vessels 
capillary cardiac contractility  cardiac cycle 
cardiac output (CO) cardiac reserve diastole
diastolic pressure dynamic exercise end diastolic volume (EDV)
end systolic volume (ESV) ephaptic conduction exercise intensity
Fick method Frank–Starling law of the heart  gap junction 
heart murmur hypertrophy indicator dilution method
intercalated disk maximum heart rate (HRmax) metarteriole
myocardium non-pathologic cardiac hypertrophy  pathologic cardiac hypertrophy 
pressure gradient pulmonary vein  Purkinje fibers 
reserve of heart rate resistance resistance vessels
resting heart rate sinoatrial (SA) node sphygmomanometer
static exercise stroke volume (SV)  stroke volume reserve 
syncytium systole  systolic pressure 
vagus nerve vein ventricle
venule viscosity  

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Chapter 6

acid alkaline reserve alveolar duct
alveolar ventilation rate alveolus anatomical dead space
base Boyle’s law  bronchioles 
bronchus buffer system  coefficient of oxygen utilization
diffusion gradient dyspnea erythrocyte
esophagus eupnea exercise-induced asthma (EIA)
exercise-induced bronchospasm (EIB) expiration phase  expiratory reserve volume 
external respiration functional residual capacity  Gay-Lussac’s law 
globin glottis heme
hemoglobin Henry’s law hyperventilation
hypocapnia hypoventilation  inspiration phase 
inspiratory capacity inspiratory reserve volume  internal respiration
ischemia law of partial pressures lung ventilation rate
nasopharynx oxygenation  oxygen cost of breathing
oxygen dissociation curve pharynx pulmonary ventilation 
residual volume respiratory center second wind
stitch in the side tidal volume tissue respiration
total lung capacity trachea  turbinate 
ventilation equivalent vital capacity   

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Chapter 7

amenorrhea anovulation catecholamine
cyclic AMP (cAMP) endocrine epinephrine
estrogen exocrine  glucagon 
gonads growth hormone  hormone 
insulin menarche norepinephrine
parathyroid hormone (PTH) phenolic amine hormone progesterone
protein hormone steroid hormone  testosterone 

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Chapter 8

acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) antibody
antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) antigen
B cell cell-mediated immunity
cluster designation (CD) complement protein
human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) humoral immunity
immune immunoglobulin
interferon killer T cell
leukocyte leukocytosis
lymphocyte lymphocytosis
lymphotoxin macrophage
macrophage activating factor macrophage chemotactic factor
macrophage migration inhibiting factor memory B cell
memory T cell monocyte
natural killer (NK) cell neutrophil
phagocytosis plasma cell
suppressor T cell T cell
upper respiratory infection (URI)  

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Chapter 9

angina pectoris atherosclerosis basal metabolic rate
body mass index (BMI) cardiovascular disease chylomicron
claudication collateral circulation coronary heart disease (CHD)
degenerative disease diabetes mellitus embolus
hemorrhagic stroke high-density lipoprotein hyperglycemia
hyperlipidemia hyperplastic obesity hypertension
hypertrophic obesity hypoglycemia infectious disease
intermediate-density lipoprotein isocaloric state law of energy balance
lipoprotein low-density lipoprotein myocardial infarction
negative caloric balance obesity osteoporosis
peripheral vascular disease positive caloric balance spot reducing
state anxiety stroke thromboembolic stroke
thrombus trait anxiety type 1 diabetes mellitus
type 2 diabetes mellitus very-low-density lipoprotein  

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Chapter 10

anaerobic threshold controlled frequency breathing (CFB) cooling down
cruise intervals detraining drafting
duration dyslipidemia economy of movement
Fartlek training frequency heart rate reserve
high risk hypercapnic training hypoxic training
intensity interval training lactate threshold
long slow distance (LSD) training low risk metabolic equivalent (MET)
mode moderate risk rating of perceived exertion (RPE)
repetition (REP) training target heart rate tempo-pace training
ventilatory threshold V•O2 reserve warming up

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Chapter 11

agonist all-or-none law
antagonist bilateral deficit
concentric conductivity
contractility contraction phase
cross-education effect delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS)
dynamic constant external resistance (DCER) muscle action eccentric
hyperplasia hypertrophy
irritability isokinetic
isometric isotonic
latent period muscle atrophy
overload overtraining
periodization plyometrics
progression rate coding
recruitment relaxation period
repetition maximum (RM) load shortening period
size principle specificity
summation of twitches tetanus
torque unilateral imagined training

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Chapter 12

ballistic stretching contract–relax (CR) contract–relax with agonist-contraction (CRAC)
dynamic flexibility flexibility proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF)
static flexibility static stretching stretch reflex

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Chapter 13

acceleration phase high-velocity phase specificity of speed
speed sprint-assisted training sprint-resisted training
start    

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Chapter 14

accumulation hypothesis central fatigue central governor model
depletion hypothesis fatigue glycogen depletion
neuromuscular fatigue peripheral fatigue phosphagen depletion
runner’s wall Setchenov phenomenon task-dependency model

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Chapter 15

complete protein complex carbohydrate disaccharide
essential amino acid frank anemia hemochromatosis
hypoglycemia latent iron deficiency monosaccharide
prelatent iron deficiency recommended daily caloric intake simple carbohydrate
sports anemia    

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Chapter 16

amphetamine anabolic steroid androstenedione
arginine beta-alanine beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB)
blood doping caffeine creatine
creatine loading dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) ergogenic aid
erythrocythemia erythropoietin glycogen supercompensation
growth hormone phosphate loading prohormone
pyruvate sodium bicarbonate sodium phosphate

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Chapter 17

altitude acclimatization chilblain chilling
cold acclimatization conduction convection
core temperature evaporation exertional heat exhaustion
exertional heatstroke exertional hyperthermia frostbite
heat acclimatization heat strain heat stress
heat syncope hypothermia jet lag
muscle (heat) cramps orthostatic dizziness radiation
temperature regulatory center trenchfoot wind chill factor

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Chapter 18

acute musculoskeletal injury adolescence body building
childhood chronic musculoskeletal injury core strengthening
development epiphyseal growth plate growth
infancy making weight maturation
mean power peak height velocity peak power
peak weight velocity puberty strength training
Tanner scale weight lifting  

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Chapter 19

arteriosclerosis force–velocity curve thoracic wall compliance

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Chapter 20

amenorrhea athletic menstrual cycle irregularities (AMIs) disordered eating
dysmenorrhea female athlete triad oligomenorrhea
relaxin    

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